When you make any authority change in Authority Manager, an event is posted to a queue. Consumers of authority information check the queue periodically. If a new event is of interest to the consumer system, it will collect the authority document referenced by the event, and update the authority in their system to match it.
Jane Doe is given financial approvals authority for a new project. Authority Manager posts an event to the queue, and updates Jane's authority document. All consumer systems can see the event in the queue, but this particular event is of interest only to Oracle Financials, which collects Jane's authority document and updates her Oracle authority.
Depending on the consumer system, changes take effect in near real-time (ranging from a few minutes to an hour) to next business day.